1. You attempt to use shadow passwords but are unsuccessful. What characteristic of the /etc/passwd file may cause this? Choose one: a. The login command is missing. b. The username is too long. c. The password field is blank. d. The password field is prefaced by an asterick.
2. You create a new user account by adding the following line to your /etc/passwd file. bobm:baddog:501:501:Bob Morris:/home/bobm:/bin/bash Bob calls you and tells you that he cannot logon. You verify that he is using the correct username and password. What is the problem? Choose one: a. The UID and GID cannot be identical. b. You cannot have spaces in the line unless they are surrounded with double quotes. c. You cannot directly enter the password; rather you have to use the passwd command to assign a password to the user. d. The username is too short, it must be at least six characters long.
3. Which of the following tasks is not necessary when creating a new user by editing the /etc/passwd file? Choose one: a. Create a link from the user’s home directory to the shell the user will use. b. Create the user’s home directory c. Use the passwd command to assign a password to the account. d. Add the user to the specified group.
4. You create a new user by adding the following line to the /etc/passwd file bobm::501:501:Bob Morris:/home/bobm:/bin/bash You then create the user’s home directory and use the passwd command to set his password. However, the user calls you and says that he cannot log on. What is the problem? Choose one: a. The user did not change his password. b. bobm does not have permission to /home/bobm. c. The user did not type his username in all caps. d. You cannot leave the password field blank when creating a new user.
5. When using useradd to create a new user account, which of the following tasks is not done automatically. Choose one: a. Assign a UID. b. Assign a default shell. c. Create the user’s home directory. d. Define the user’s home directory.
6. You issue the following command useradd -m bobm But the user cannot logon. What is the problem? Choose one: a. You need to assign a password to bobm’s account using the passwd command. b. You need to create bobm’s home directory and set the appropriate permissions. c. You need to edit the /etc/passwd file and assign a shell for bobm’s account. d. The username must be at least five characters long.
7. You have created special configuration files that you want copied to each user’s home directories when creating new user accounts. You copy the files to /etc/skel. Which of the following commands will make this happen? Choose one: a. useradd -m username b. useradd -mk username c. useradd -k username d. useradd -Dk username
8. Mary has recently gotten married and wants to change her username from mstone to mknight. Which of the following commands should you run to accomplish this? Choose one: a. usermod -l mknight mstone b. usermod -l mstone mknight c. usermod -u mknight mstone d. usermod -u mstone mknight
9. After bob leaves the company you issue the command userdel bob. Although his entry in the /etc/passwd file has been deleted, his home directory is still there. What command could you have used to make sure that his home directory was also deleted? Choose one: a. userdel -m bob b. userdel -u bob c. userdel -l bob d. userdel -r bob
10. All groups are defined in the /etc/group file. Each entry contains four fields in the following order. Choose one: a. groupname, password, GID, member list b. GID, groupname, password, member list c. groupname, GID, password, member list d. GID, member list, groupname, password
11. You need to create a new group called sales with Bob, Mary and Joe as members. Which of the following would accomplish this? Choose one: a. Add the following line to the /etc/group file: sales:44:bob,mary,joe b. Issue the command groupadd sales. c. Issue the command groupadd -a sales bob,mary,joe d. Add the following line to the /etc/group file: sales::44:bob,mary,joe
12. What command is used to remove the password assigned to a group?
13. You changed the GID of the sales group by editing the /etc/group file. All of the members can change to the group without any problem except for Joe. He cannot even login to the system. What is the problem? Choose one: a. Joe forgot the password for the group. b. You need to add Joe to the group again. c. Joe had the original GID specified as his default group in the /etc/passwd file. d. You need to delete Joe’s account and recreate it.
14. You need to delete the group dataproject. Which two of the following tasks should you do first before deleting the group? A. Check the /etc/passwd file to make sure no one has this group as his default group. B. Change the members of the dataproject group to another group besides users. C. Make sure that the members listed in the /etc/group file are given new login names. D. Verify that no file or directory has this group listed as its owner. Choose one: a. A and C b. A and D c. B and C d. B and D
15. When you look at the /etc/group file you see the group kmem listed. Since it does not own any files and no one is using it as a default group, can you delete this group?
16. When looking at the /etc/passwd file, you notice that all the password fields contain ‘x’. What does this mean? Choose one: a. That the password is encrypted. b. That you are using shadow passwords. c. That all passwords are blank. d. That all passwords have expired.
17. In order to improve your system’s security you decide to implement shadow passwords. What command should you use?
18. What file contains the default environment variables when using the bash shell? Choose one: a. ~/.profile b. /bash c. /etc/profile d. ~/bash
19. You have created a subdirectory of your home directory containing your scripts. Since you use the bash shell, what file would you edit to put this directory on your path? Choose one: a. ~/.profile b. /etc/profile c. /etc/bash d. ~/.bash
20. Which of the following interprets your actions when typing at the command line for the operating system? Choose One a. Utility b. Application c. Shell d. Command
21. What can you type at a command line to determine which shell you are using?
22. You want to enter a series of commands from the command-line. What would be the quickest way to do this? Choose One a. Press enter after entering each command and its arguments b. Put them in a script and execute the script c. Separate each command with a semi-colon (;) and press enter after the last command d. Separate each command with a / and press enter after the last command
23. You are entering a long, complex command line and you reach the right side of your screen before you have finished typing. You want to finish typing the necessary commands but have the display wrap around to the left. Which of the following key combinations would achieve this? Choose One a. Esc, /, Enter b. /, Enter c. ctrl-d, enter d. esc, /, ctrl-d
24. After typing in a new command and pressing enter, you receive an error message indicating incorrect syntax. This error message originated from.. Choose one a. The shell b. The operating system c. The command d. The kernel
25. When typing at the command line, the default editor is the _____________ library.
26. You typed the following at the command line ls -al /home/ hadden. What key strokes would you enter to remove the space between the ‘/’ and ‘hadden’ without having to retype the entire line? Choose one a. Ctrl-B, Del b. Esc-b, Del c. Esc-Del, Del d. Ctrl-b, Del
27. You would like to temporarily change your command line editor to be vi. What command should you type to change it?
28. After experimenting with vi as your command line editor, you decide that you want to have vi your default editor every time you log in. What would be the appropriate way to do this? Choose one a. Change the /etc/inputrc file b. Change the /etc/profile file c. Change the ~/.inputrc file d. Change the ~/.profile file
29. You have to type your name and title frequently throughout the day and would like to decrease the number of key strokes you use to type this. Which one of your configuration files would you edit to bind this information to one of the function keys?
30. In your present working directory, you have the files maryletter memo1 MyTelephoneandAddressBook What is the fewest number of keys you can type to open the file MyTelephoneandAddressBook with vi? Choose one a. 6 b. 28 c. 25 d. 4
31. A variable that you can name and assign a value to is called a _____________ variable.
32. You have installed a new application but when you type in the command to start it you get the error message Command not found. What do you need to do to fix this problem? Choose one a. Add the directory containing the application to your path b. Specify the directory’s name whenever you run the application c. Verify that the execute permission has been applied to the command. d. Give everyone read, write and execute permission to the application’s directory.
33. You telnet into several of your servers simultaneously. During the day, you sometimes get confused as to which telnet session is connected to which server. Which of the following commands in your .profile file would make it obvious to which server you are attached? Choose one a. PS1=’\h: \w>’ b. PS1=’\s: \W>’ c. PS1=’\!: \t>’ d. PS1=’\a: \n>’
34. Which of the following environment variables determines your working directory at the completion of a successful login? Choose one a. HOME b. BASH_ENV c. PWD d. BLENDERDIR
35. Every time you attempt to delete a file using the rm utility, the operating system prompts you for confirmation. You know that this is not the customary behavior for the rm command. What is wrong? Choose one a. rm has been aliased as rm -i b. The version of rm installed on your system is incorrect. c. This is the normal behavior of the newest version of rm. d. There is an incorrect link on your system.
36. You are running out of space in your home directory. While looking for files to delete or compress you find a large file called .bash_history and delete it. A few days later, it is back and as large as before. What do you need to do to ensure that its size is smaller? Choose one a. Set the HISTFILESIZE variable to a smaller number. b. Set the HISTSIZE to a smaller number. c. Set the NOHISTFILE variable to true. d. Set the HISTAPPEND variable to true.
37. In order to display the last five commands you have entered using the history command, you would type ___________.
38. In order to display the last five commands you have entered using the fc command, you would type ___________.
39. You previously ran the find command to locate a particular file. You want to run that command again. What would be the quickest way to do this? Choose one a. fc -l find fc n b. history -l find history n c. Retype the command d. fc -n find
40. Using command substitution, how would you display the value of the present working directory? Choose one a. echo $(pwd) b. echo pwd c. $pwd d. pwd | echo
41. You need to search the entire directory structure to locate a specific file. How could you do this and still be able to run other commands while the find command is still searching for your file? Choose one a. find / -name filename & b. find / -name filename c. bg find / -name filename d. &find / -name filename &
42. In order to create a file called DirContents containing the contents of the /etc directory you would type ____________.
43. What would be displayed as the result of issuing the command ps ef? Choose one a. A listing of the user’s running processes formatted as a tree. b. A listing of the stopped processes c. A listing of all the running processes formatted as a tree. d. A listing of all system processes formatted as a tree.
44. What utility can you use to show a dynamic listing of running processes? __________
45. The top utility can be used to change the priority of a running process? Another utility that can also be used to change priority is ___________?
46. What key combination can you press to suspend a running job and place it in the background?
47. You issue the command jobs and receive the following output: - Stopped (tty output) pine + Stopped (tty output) MyScript How would you bring the MyScript process to the foreground? Choose one: a. fg %2 b. ctrl-c c. fg MyScript d. ctrl-z
48. You enter the command cat MyFile | sort > DirList & and the operating system displays  3499 What does this mean? Choose one a. This is job number 4 and the PID of the sort command is 3499. b. This is job number 4 and the PID of the job is 3499. c. This is job number 3499 and the PID of the cat command is 4. d. This is job number 4 and the PID of the cat command is 3499.
49. You attempt to log out but receive an error message that you cannot. When you issue the jobs command, you see a process that is running in the background. How can you fix this so that you can logout? Choose one a. Issue the kill command with the PID of each running command of the pipeline as an argument. b. Issue the kill command with the job number as an argument. c. Issue the kill command with the PID of the last command as an argument. d. Issue the kill command without any arguments.
50. You have been given the job of administering a new server. It houses a database used by the sales people. This information is changed frequently and is not duplicated anywhere else. What should you do to ensure that this information is not lost? Choose one a. Create a backup strategy that includes backing up this information at least daily. b. Prepare a proposal to purchase a backup server c. Recommend that the server be made part of a cluster. d. Install an additional hard drive in the server.
51. When planning your backup strategy you need to consider how often you will perform a backup, how much time the backup takes and what media you will use. What other factor must you consider when planning your backup strategy? _________
52. Many factors are taken into account when planning a backup strategy. The one most important one is how often does the file ____________.
53. Which one of the following factors does not play a role in choosing the type of backup media to use? Choose one: a. How frequently a file changes b. How long you need to retain the backup c. How much data needs to be backed up d. How frequently the backed up data needs to be accessed
54. When you only back up one partition, this is called a ______ backup. Choose one a. Differential b. Full c. Partial d. Copy
55. When you back up only the files that have changed since the last backup, this is called a ______ backup. Choose one a. Partial b. Differential c. Full d. Copy
56. The easiest, most basic form of backing up a file is to _____ it to another location.
57. When is the most important time to restore a file from your backup? Choose one a. On a regular scheduled basis to verify that the data is available. b. When the system crashes. c. When a user inadvertently loses a file. d. When your boss asks to see how restoring a file works.
58. As a system administrator, you are instructed to backup all the users’ home directories. Which of the following commands would accomplish this? Choose one a. tar rf usersbkup home/* b. tar cf usersbkup home/* c. tar cbf usersbkup home/* d. tar rvf usersbkup home/*
59. What is wrong with the following command? tar cvfb / /dev/tape 20 Choose one a. You cannot use the c option with the b option. b. The correct line should be tar -cvfb / /dev/tape20. c. The arguments are not in the same order as the corresponding modifiers. d. The files to be backed up have not been specified.
60. You need to view the contents of the tarfile called MyBackup.tar. What command would you use? __________
61. After creating a backup of the users’ home directories called backup.cpio you are asked to restore a file called memo.ben. What command should you type?
62. You want to create a compressed backup of the users’ home directories so you issue the command gzip /home/* backup.gz but it fails. The reason that it failed is that gzip will only compress one _______ at a time.
63. You want to create a compressed backup of the users’ home directories. What utility should you use?
64. You routinely compress old log files. You now need to examine a log from two months ago. In order to view its contents without first having to decompress it, use the _________ utility.
65. Which two utilities can you use to set up a job to run at a specified time? Choose one: a. at and crond b. atrun and crontab c. at and crontab d. atd and crond
66. You have written a script called usrs to parse the passwd file and create a list of usernames. You want to have this run at 5 am tomorrow so you can see the results when you get to work. Which of the following commands will work? Choose one: a. at 5:00 wed usrs b. at 5:00 wed -b usrs c. at 5:00 wed -l usrs d. at 5:00 wed -d usrs
67. Several of your users have been scheduling large at jobs to run during peak load times. How can you prevent anyone from scheduling an at job? Choose one: a. delete the file /etc/at.deny b. create an empty file called /etc/at.deny c. create two empty files: /etc/at.deny and /etc/at.allow file d. create an empty file called /etc/at.allow
68. How can you determine who has scheduled at jobs? Choose one: a. at -l b. at -q c. at -d d. atwho
69. When defining a cronjob, there are five fields used to specify when the job will run. What are these fields and what is the correct order? Choose one: a. minute, hour, day of week, day of month, month b. minute, hour, month, day of month, day of week c. minute, hour, day of month, month, day of week d. hour, minute, day of month, month, day of week
70. You have entered the following cronjob. When will it run? 15 * * * 1,3,5 myscript Choose one: a. at 15 minutes after every hour on the 1st, 3rd and 5th of each month. b. at 1:15 am, 3:15 am, and 5:15 am every day c. at 3:00 pm on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th of each month d. at 15 minutes after every hour every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday
71. As the system administrator you need to review Bob’s cronjobs. What command would you use? Choose one: a. crontab -lu bob b. crontab -u bob c. crontab -l d. cronq -lu bob
72. In order to schedule a cronjob, the first task is to create a text file containing the jobs to be run along with the time they are to run. Which of the following commands will run the script MyScript every day at 11:45 pm? Choose one: a. * 23 45 * * MyScript b. 23 45 * * * MyScript c. 45 23 * * * MyScript d. * * * 23 45 MyScript
73. Which daemon must be running in order to have any scheduled jobs run as scheduled? Choose one: a. crond b. atd c. atrun d. crontab
74. You want to ensure that your system is not overloaded with users running multiple scheduled jobs. A policy has been established that only the system administrators can create any scheduled jobs. It is your job to implement this policy. How are you going to do this? Choose one: a. create an empty file called /etc/cron.deny b. create a file called /etc/cron.allow which contains the names of those allowed to schedule jobs. c. create a file called /etc/cron.deny containing all regular usernames. d. create two empty files called /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny
75. You notice that your server load is exceptionally high during the hours of 10 am to 2 noon. When investigating the cause, you suspect that it may be a cron job scheduled by one of your users. What command can you use to determine if your suspicions are correct? Choose one: a. crontab -u b. crond -u c. crontab -l d. crond -l
76. One of your users, Bob, has created a script to reindex his database. Now he has it scheduled to run every day at 10:30 am. What command should you use to delete this job. Choose one: a. crontab -ru bob b. crontab -u bob c. crontab -du bob d. crontab -lu bob
77. What daemon is responsible for tracking events on your system?
78. What is the name and path of the default configuration file used by the syslogd daemon?
79. You have made changes to the /etc/syslog.conf file. Which of the following commands will cause these changes to be implemented without having to reboot your computer? Choose one: a. kill SIGHINT `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid` b. kill SIGHUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid` c. kill SIGHUP syslogd d. kill SIGHINT syslogd
80. Which of the following lines in your /etc/syslog.conf file will cause all critical messages to be logged to the file /var/log/critmessages? Choose one: a. *.=crit /var/log/critmessages b. *crit /var/log/critmessages c. *=crit /var/log/critmessages d. *.crit /var/log/critmessages
81. You wish to have all mail messages except those of type info to the /var/log/mailmessages file. Which of the following lines in your /etc/syslogd.conf file would accomplish this? Choose one: a. mail.*;mail!=info /var/log/mailmessages b. mail.*;mail.=info /var/log/mailmessages c. mail.*;mail.info /var/log/mailmessages d. mail.*;mail.!=info /var/log/mailmessages
82. What is the name and path of the main system log?
83. Which log contains information on currently logged in users? Choose one: a. /var/log/utmp b. /var/log/wtmp c. /var/log/lastlog d. /var/log/messages
84. You have been assigned the task of determining if there are any user accounts defined on your system that have not been used during the last three months. Which log file should you examine to determine this information? Choose one: a. /var/log/wtmp b. /var/log/lastlog c. /var/log/utmp d. /var/log/messages
85. You have been told to configure a method of rotating log files on your system. Which of the following factors do you not need to consider? Choose one: a. date and time of messages b. log size c. frequency of rotation d. amount of available disk space
86. What utility can you use to automate rotation of logs?
87. You wish to rotate all your logs weekly except for the /var/log/wtmp log which you wish to rotate monthly. How could you accomplish this. Choose one: a. Assign a global option to rotate all logs weekly and a local option to rotate the /var/log/wtmp log monthly. b. Assign a local option to rotate all logs weekly and a global option to rotate the /var/log/wtmp log monthly. c. Move the /var/log/wtmp log to a different directory. Run logrotate against the new location. d. Configure logrotate to not rotate the /var/log/wtmp log. Rotate it manually every month.
88. You have configured logrotate to rotate your logs weekly and keep them for eight weeks. You are running our of disk space. What should you do? Choose one: a. Quit using logrotate and manually save old logs to another location. b. Reconfigure logrotate to only save logs for four weeks. c. Configure logrotate to save old files to another location. d. Use the prerotate command to run a script to move the older logs to another location.
89. What command can you use to review boot messages?
90. What file defines the levels of messages written to system log files?
91. What account is created when you install Linux?
92. While logged on as a regular user, your boss calls up and wants you to create a new user account immediately. How can you do this without first having to close your work, log off and logon as root? Choose one: a. Issue the command rootlog. b. Issue the command su and type exit when finished. c. Issue the command su and type logoff when finished. d. Issue the command logon root and type exit when finished.
93. Which file defines all users on your system? Choose one: a. /etc/passwd b. /etc/users c. /etc/password d. /etc/user.conf
94. There are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file. Which of the following lists all the fields in the correct order? Choose one: a. username, UID, GID, home directory, command, comment b. username, UID, GID, comment, home directory, command c. UID, username, GID, home directory, comment, command d. username, UID, group name, GID, home directory, comment
95. Which of the following user names is invalid? Choose one: a. Theresa Hadden b. thadden c. TheresaH d. T.H.
96. In order to prevent a user from logging in, you can add a(n) ________at the beginning of the password field.
97. The beginning user identifier is defined in the _________ file.
98. Which field is used to define the user’s default shell?
99. Bob Armstrong, who has a username of boba, calls to tell you he forgot his password. What command should you use to reset his command?
100. Your company has implemented a policy that users’ passwords must be reset every ninety days. Since you have over 100 users you created a file with each username and the new password. How are you going to change the old passwords to the new ones? Choose one: a. Use the chpasswd command along with the name of the file containing the new passwords. b. Use the passwd command with the -f option and the name of the file containing the new passwords. c. Open the /etc/passwd file in a text editor and manually change each password. d. Use the passwd command with the -u option.